Glossary

Words shown in this glossary are intended by IPdoxx as meanings of expressions used throughout our website and in our products.  These meanings should not be considered as definitive and are provided for guidance purposes only.

Agent
person or business authorised to act on another's behalf.

Agreement
An arrangement (whether in writing or verbal) that is accepted by all parties to a transaction.

Assignee
The entity that is the recipient of a transfer of a patent application, patent, trade mark application or trade mark from its owner of record (assignor).

Assignment
A transfer of ownership of intellectual property.

Assignor
The owner of record of a patent application, patent, trade mark application or trade mark who is transferring (assigning) ownership to another entity (assignee).

Background intellectual property
Existing intellectual property belonging to a party used as part of a programme of collaboration or research.

Certification mark
Any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination, used, or intended to be used, in commerce by someone other than its owner, to certify regional or other origin, material, mode of manufacture, quality, accuracy, or other characteristics of such person's goods or services, or that the work or labour on the goods or services was performed by members of a union or other organisation. 

Collective mark
A trade mark or service mark used, or intended to be used, in commerce, by the members of a cooperative, an association, or other collective group or organisation, including a mark that indicates membership in a union, an association, or other organisation.

Commission
An instruction to carry out an act or do something.

Confidentiality
Information of a commercial, scientific or other technical nature that is to be kept and maintained as secret and used only for a permitted purpose; used also in conjunction with the term 'non-disclosure'.

Collaboration
The act of working with another or others on a joint project.

Consortium
An association of individuals or legal entities (such as businesses or universities) formed for a particular purpose.

Consultancy
The provision of advice or services by a person, company or firm.

Copyright
The exclusive or non-exclusive right to make copies, license, and otherwise exploit a literary, musical, artistic or dramatic work.

Copyright notice
 
A notice which informs the public that a work is protected by copyright, identifies the copyright owner and shows the year of first publication.

Design right 

The shape and configuration (how different parts of a design are arranged together) of objects. Design right automatically protects your design for 10 years after the design was first sold or 15 years after it was created - whichever is earliest.

Development
The act or process of growing, progressing, or developing a product or process.

Disclaimer 
A statement that the applicant or registrant does not claim the exclusive right to use a specified element or elements of the mark. The purpose of a disclaimer is to permit the registration of a mark that is registrable as a whole but contains matter that would not be registrable standing alone, without creating a false impression of the extent of the registrant’s right with respect to certain elements in the mark.

Employee 
A person who is hired for a wage, salary, fee or payment to perform work for an employer. A person may be classed as an employee if he or she is working under a contract of employment. A contract need not be in writing as it exists when a person and his or her employer agree terms and conditions of employment. It can also be implied from a person's actions and those of the person he or she is working for.

Escrow 
A contract, deed, bond, or other written information deposited with a third person for safekeeping and by whom it is to be delivered to the grantee or promisee on the fulfillment of some condition.

Evaluation
The investigation of how or whether a product or process works.

Force majeure
An unexpected and disruptive event that may operate to excuse a party from a contract.

Foreground intellectual property
Intellectual property arising from or created as part of a programme of collaboration, research or use.

Framework 
A framework agreement will generally allow a purchaser more flexibility around the goods or services contracted for under the framework, both in terms of volume and also the detail of the relevant goods and services.

Franchise
The right or license granted by a company to an individual or group to market its products or services in a specific territory.

Information technology
The application of computers, telecommunications equipment or other information distribution technologies to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

Indemnity
Protection or security against damage or loss.

Intellectual property
Intangible rights protecting the products of a person's creation.  Intellectual property includes patents, rights to inventions (patentable or non-patentable), utility models or other incremental inventions (commonly termed petty patents, innovation patents, minor patents or small patents), all forms of copyright and related rights, trade marks, trade names, trade secrets and domain names, designs (registered or unregistered), rights in get-up, rights in goodwill or to sue for passing off, new plant varieties, biological materials, topographies and rights in topography, rights in software, works generated by computer hardware or software, database rights, confidential information and any other intellectual proprietary rights, in each case whether registered or unregistered and including all applications (or rights to apply) for any of the above, and renewals or extensions of any of the above and all similar or equivalent rights or forms of protection which may now or in the future subsist in any part of the world.

Invention
T
he discovery or production of some new or improved process or machine (whether by itself is patentable, registrable or not, for whatever reason) that is both useful and is not obvious to persons skilled in the particular field.  This may be a composition, device, discovery, idea, material, method, or process and any associated, supporting or other technology or subject matter (whether by itself is patentable, registrable or not, for whatever reason) that is required for the development or application of a composition, device, discovery, idea, material, method, or process.

Inventor 
A person who contributes to the conception of an invention.

Joint inventor
An inventor who is named with at least one other inventor in a patent applicatio in which each inventor contributes to the conception of the invention set out in at least one claim in a patent application.

Jurisdiction
The right, power, or authority to administer justice by hearing and determining controversies.

Know-how
Generally information in the form of analyses, compositions, compounds, concepts, data, drawings, facts, ideas, materials, methods, models, molecules (of a biological or chemical nature), processes, results, specifications or statistics that are not in the public domain and intended to remain confidential.

Liability
Monies owed, debts or pecuniary obligations.

Licence
An authorisation as part of an agreement giving official permission to do something.

Master services 
A term used to describe a framework agreement for the controlling of multiple services of a same or similar nature each and all of which services are controlled by a single agreement.

Materials transfer 
A transfer of tangible research materials between two organisations, when the recipient intends to use it for his or her own research purposes.

Net sales price
The amount of sales generated by a company after the deduction of returns, allowances for damaged or missing goods and any discounts allowed.

Patent
An exclusive or non-exclusive right granted for an invention, which is a product or a process that provides a new way of doing something, or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A United Kingdom patent may last for up to 20 years, subject to renewal fees being paid. Patent rights make it illegal for anyone except the owner or someone with the owner's permission to make, use, import or sell a product or process that includes the invention in the country where the patent was granted.

Patent family
The same invention disclosed by a common inventor(s) and patented in more than one country.

Policy 
An action or procedure conforming to or considered with reference to prudence or expediency within an academic institution or commercial enterprise.

Registered design 
A registered right to protect the
look, appearance, physical shape, configuration (or how different parts of a design are arranged together) or decoration of an object.  A registered design may last for up to 25 years.

Research
The diligent and systematic inquiry or investigation into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories or applications.

Reserves (against returns)
Royalties earned on a book that are due to be paid to the author but are, (by mutual agreement in the contract between author/publisher), withheld from the author by the publisher for a specified length of time to cover the costs of books reported as sold stock being returned to the publisher for refund (account credit).

Results
The results and outcomes of all academic learning, analyses, conclusions, examinations, experiments, investigations, hypotheses, research, studies, tests and trials including the conduct and all steps taken as part of any of the above (and any part of them) arrived at, created or developed within an organisation, by or on behalf of an organisation or using the resources of an organisation.

Royalty
Typically a percentage of the revenue from the sale (or use) of a product and paid by a party to (for example) an author, inventor or proprietor.

Service level agreement 
An agreement that sets service levels, usually in measurable terms, by which a network service provider furnishes a customer with services within a given time period or with certain goals (or both).

Software
Forms of application software, algorithms, codes, data, instructions, programs and procedures, programming software (but not limited to compilers, debuggers, interpreters, linkers, and text editors), and system software (but not limited to device drivers, operating systems, servers, utilities) created, designed and written to cause or perform any function or purpose, and all preparatory work and materials relating to any of the above or their operation.

Student
A person formally engaged in learning at any level within an academic institution or through distance learning, whether enrolled on a full-time basis or on a part-time basis.

Technology transfer
The process of transferring skills, knowledge, technologies, methods of manufacturing, samples of manufacturing and facilities between academic institutions or commercial enterprises and other institutions to ensure that scientific and technological developments are accessible to a wider range of users who can then further develop and exploit the technology into new products, processes, applications, materials or services.

Trade mark
Any name, symbol, figure, letter, word, or mark adopted and used by a manufacturer or merchant in order to designate his or her goods or services and to distinguish them from those manufactured or sold by others. A trade mark will protect brands, and prevent competitors using the same or similar branding that may confuse consumers, or take advantage of brand’s reputation. 
A trade mark must be distinctive for the goods and services to which it will apply and it must not be not deceptive, contrary to public policy, law or morality or registered in bad faith.

Trade secret
Information that companies keep secret to give them an advantage over their competitors.

User licence 
A licence given to a key individual or individuals within a subscriber or member organisation with access to the documents on behalf of  the subscriber or member organisation on an annual basis.

Waiver
A
n intentional relinquishment of some right, interest, or the like including an express or written statement of such relinquishment.

Warranty 
A stipulation, explicit or implied, in assurance of some particular in connection with a contract.